Alok's Blog


Linux commands r working as tool, so we can call them tool 🙂

Linux is well planned and well documented Operating System. from its beginning  everithing is documented. so every command documentation comes defaults with the operating system. If u want to know more about any command the good practice is reading  info or man pages, even u can also find details about the importent file like GRUB File BASH file etc.

for using info or man just type info or man before the command


$info coreutils

$man mkdir

General per pose Command

$ls   -ahl [For listing Directories]

$cd  [Changing Directories]

$pwd  [Present working Directories]

Administrative command

# fdisk -l    [Shows partition in Linux operating system]

Command  Related with Networing


ifconfig – configure a network interface

#ifconfig -a 

eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:03:0d:8b:37:c6
          inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: fe80::203:dff:fe8b:37c6/64 Scope:Link
          RX packets:290433 errors:30 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:30
          TX packets:223591 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:288973212 (275.5 MiB)  TX bytes:48392499 (46.1 MiB)
          Interrupt:19 Base address:0xdead

eth0:1    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:03:0d:8b:37:c6
          inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
          Interrupt:19 Base address:0xdead

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback
          inet addr:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:16436  Metric:1
          RX packets:3718 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:3718 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
          RX bytes:173368 (169.3 KiB)  TX bytes:173368 (169.3 KiB)

mii-tool (8)         - view, manipulate media-independent interface status
eth0: negotiated 100baseTx-FD, link ok 

ethtool (8)          - Display or change ethernet card settings
#ethtool eth0
Settings for eth0:
        Supported ports: [ TP MII ]
        Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
        Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
        Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
        Advertised auto-negotiation: Yes
        Speed: 100Mb/s
        Duplex: Full
        Port: MII
        PHYAD: 1
        Transceiver: internal
        Auto-negotiation: on
        Current message level: 0x00000037 (55)
        Link detected: yes

ip (8) - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels
ip (7) - Linux IPv4 protocol implementation
#ip address show
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet scope host lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:03:0d:8b:37:c6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet brd scope global eth0
    inet brd scope global eth0:1
    inet6 fe80::203:dff:fe8b:37c6/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

$lspci | grep Ethernet
00:04.0 Ethernet controller: Silicon Integrated Systems [SiS] 191 Gigabit Ethernet Adapter (rev 02)
Q. Dmidecode (DMI information) Details
   dmidecode  is  a  tool  for  dumping  a  computer’s DMI (some say SMBIOS) table contents in a human-readable format. This table contains a
       description of the system’s hardware components, as well as other useful pieces of information such as serial numbers and  BIOS  revision.
       Thanks  to  this  table, you can retrieve this information without having to probe for the actual hardware.  While this is a good point in
       terms of report speed and safeness, this also makes the presented information possibly unreliable.

       The DMI table doesn’t only describe what the system is currently made of, it also can report the possible evolutions (such as the  fastest
       supported CPU or the maximal amount of memory supported).

       SMBIOS stands for System Management BIOS, while DMI stands for Desktop Management Interface. Both standards are tightly related and devel‐
       oped by the DMTF (Desktop Management Task Force).

       As you run it, dmidecode will try to locate the DMI table. If it succeeds, it will then parse this table and display  a  list  of  records
       like this one:

       Handle 0x0002, DMI type 2, 8 bytes.  Base Board Information
               Manufacturer: Intel
               Product Name: C440GX+
               Version: 727281-001
               Serial Number: INCY92700942

       The SMBIOS specification defines the following DMI types:

       Type   Information
          0   BIOS
          1   System
          2   Base Board
          3   Chassis
          4   Processor
          5   Memory Controller
          6   Memory Module
          7   Cache
          8   Port Connector
          9   System Slots
         10   On Board Devices
         11   OEM Strings
         12   System Configuration Options
         13   BIOS Language
         14   Group Associations
         15   System Event Log
         16   Physical Memory Array
         17   Memory Device
         18   32-bit Memory Error
         19   Memory Array Mapped Address
         20   Memory Device Mapped Address
         21   Built-in Pointing Device
         22   Portable Battery
         23   System Reset
         24   Hardware Security
         25   System Power Controls
         26   Voltage Probe
         27   Cooling Device
         28   Temperature Probe
         29   Electrical Current Probe
         30   Out-of-band Remote Access
         31   Boot Integrity Services
         32   System Boot
         33   64-bit Memory Error
         34   Management Device
         35   Management Device Component
         36   Management Device Threshold Data
         37   Memory Channel
         38   IPMI Device

         39   Power Supply

       Additionally,  type  126  is used for disabled entries and type 127 is an end-of-table marker. Types 128 to 255 are for OEM-specific data.
       dmidecode will display these entries by default, but it can only decode them when the vendors have contributed documentation or  code  for

       Keywords can be used instead of type numbers with --type.  Each keyword is equivalent to a list of type numbers:

       Keyword     Types
       bios        0, 13
       system      1, 12, 15, 23, 32
       baseboard   2, 10
       chassis     3
       processor   4
       memory      5, 6, 16, 17
       cache       7
       connector   8
       slot        9

       Keywords are matched case-insensitively. The following command lines are equivalent:

# dmidecode --type 0 --type 13 
# dmidecode --type 5,6,16,17  or dmidecode -t 5,6,16,17 
# dmidecode --type memory or dmidecode -t processor 
# dmidecode --type BIOS

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